Paris: Mercure de France.
Abbreviations of Works by Nietzsche
Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. London and New York: Continuum. Cambridge, Mass. London and New York: Routledge. Kyoto: Showado. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Press.
Beijing: Academy of Social Sciences Press. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer. Shanghai: Shanghai Peoples Publishing House. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Turin: Trauben. Barcelona: Kairos. Manchester, U. K: Clinamen Press. Chicago: Open Court. Kyoto: Zen Studies Institute. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Munich: Fink Verlag. New York: Oxford University Press. London: Routledge. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Boulder: Westview Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: McGraw-Hill. Shanghai: Shanghai Kuji. Trier: Wissenschaftliche Verlag.
Shanghai: Shanghai Kuji Publishing House. Keiji Nishitani The meaning of Nihilism for Japan. Translations [Details] On Nature. Keiji Nishitani On Nature. Translations [Details] Ki-re and Iki. Ryosuke Ohashi Ki-re and Iki. Translations [Details] On Moods. Friedrich Nietzsche On Moods.
Parkes, Graham; Entry on Fengshui. London and New York:Springer.
Encyclopedia Entries. Parkes, Graham; Entry on Japanese Aesthetics.
Parkes, Graham; Entry on Nishitani Keiji. Parkes, Graham; Entry on Nihilism.
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Garland Publishing. Oxford:Oxford University Press. Parkes ucc. Search profiles by name Search by name Search. Search by topic Search. Choose areas of the website to search Website People Courses. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche and Music. Composing the Soul: Reaches of Nietzsche's Psychology. The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism. Secret Doctrines of the Tibetan Books of the Dead. Liam Leonard and Graham Parkes Ed. Parkes, Graham Ed. Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics , [Details].
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Environmental Philosophy , [Details]. The Journal of Japanese Philosophy , [Details]. Buddhist-Christian Studies , [Details]. Simplegadi , 11 27 [Details]. Not only does Nietzsche posit that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space, but that the different versions of events that have occurred in the past may at one point or another take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: " A My life will recur in exactly identical fashion.
Finally, " C If my life were to recur, then it could recur only in identical fashion. Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. The overman does not follow morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the " herd ".
He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity. I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?
All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment.
You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape The overman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity most obvious example being democracy , an alternative goal humanity might set for itself.
The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm. This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible. Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism.
Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval; yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism.
Friedrich Nietzsche (–) | SpringerLink
Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence; that is, only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life, including his failures and misdeeds, and to truly will their eternal return.
This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.
Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ;  20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture.
His views stand against the concept of popular culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity.
Economy and Society
Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species. According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture. He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power.
By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings. A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir ,  who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects  but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others.